Analysis: How Liberalisation and Austerity Led to Both Lula and Bolsonaro

In a new working paper the authors provide evidence tracing the rise of populism in Brazil – through the victories of presidents Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva in 2002 and Jair Bolsonaro in 2018.

By Patricia Justino and Bruno Martorano*

RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL - While the rise of populist politicians in Europe and the US gets a lot of attention from the media and researchers alike, the drivers of the populism taking hold in emerging and developing economies still receives relatively little scrutiny.

In a recent working paper the authors provide new evidence tracing the rise of populism in Brazil – through the victories of presidents Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva in 2002 and Jair Bolsonaro in 2018 – to regional economic shocks caused by a process of trade liberalization that began in the early . . .

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