Small-Scale Waste-Water Treatment Systems Utilizing Water Hyacinth

Opinion, by Alfonso Stefanini

RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL - Rio's Guanabara Bay, a geographically mountainous and aesthetically beautiful area, is polluted daily with domestic water and sewage coming from "subnormal agglomeration" housing. The term was coined by IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics) to describe favelas or "slums" which house over 11 million people in Brazil, or about fourteen percent of the total population in Rio de Janeiro State.

Here, irregular housing and absence of basic sanitation, such as sewage . . .

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